Development of an ICF‐based questionnaire for urinary and/or fecal incontinence (ICF‐IAF) : The female patients’ perspective using focus groups (subproject)

Gass, Stephanie; Kuhn, Manuel; König, Irene; Radlinger, Lorenz; Köhler, Barbara (2019). Development of an ICF‐based questionnaire for urinary and/or fecal incontinence (ICF‐IAF) : The female patients’ perspective using focus groups (subproject) Neurourology and Urodynamics, 38(6), pp. 1657-1662. 10.1002/nau.24031

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Aims: The aim of this study was to identify the problems and resources of women with urinary or fecal incontinence based on the International Classification of Function and Health (ICF) framework and detecting the impact on the personal environment and quality of life. This study forms part of a project with an overall goal to enable standardized planning and evaluation of interventions in multi‐professional settings. Methods: To answer the study question a mixed‐method sequential design with a priority to the quantitative approach was considered appropriate. Regarding methods, focus groups were chosen to collect data. Transcripts were analyzed with content analysis and identified concepts linked to the corresponding ICF categories by two different raters. Cohen's kappa was calculated for interrater reliability. Results: Thirteen women with a mean age of 69.9 years were recruited. Four focus groups were conducted, whereas saturation was reached after two focus groups. Overall transcripts 99 defined ICF categories at second level could be linked (body functions = 31, body structures = 5, activities and participation = 33, and environmental factors = 30) whereas 4 categories were not sufficiently covered by the ICF (3 = personal factors, 1 = not covered). Conclusions: This study has determined 103 resources and problems based on the ICF model of women with urinary and/or fecal incontinence. In spite of these results, it was shown that four concepts are not fully covered by the ICF framework. The current data highlight the importance of an extension of the ICF model, especially towards the personal factors of patients. KEYWORDS assessment, patient outcomes, evaluation qualitative, evaluation quantitative, health holistic

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


School of Health Professions
School of Health Professions > Physiotherapy


Gass, Stephanie;
Kuhn, Manuel;
König, Irene0000-0002-6032-0255;
Radlinger, Lorenz0000-0002-0326-6264 and
Köhler, Barbara






Lorenz Radlinger

Date Deposited:

04 Nov 2019 09:21

Last Modified:

18 Dec 2020 13:29

Publisher DOI:





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