Identification and comparison of heart-rate dynamics during cycle ergometer and treadmill exercise

Hunt, Kenneth James; Grunder, Reto; Zahnd, Andreas (2019). Identification and comparison of heart-rate dynamics during cycle ergometer and treadmill exercise PLoS One, 14(8), e0220826. Public Library of Science (PLoS) 10.1371/journal.pone.0220826

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Aim and methods: The aim of this study was to compare the dynamics of heart rate (HR) response to exercise using a cycle ergometer (CE) and a treadmill (TM). Using a sample of 25 healthy male participants, the time constant of HR dynamics was estimated for both modalities in response to square-wave excitation. Results: The principal finding was that the time constant of heart-rate dynamics around somewhat hard exercise intensity (Borg rating of perceived exertion = 13) does not differ significantly between the CE and TM (68.7 s ± 21.5 s vs. 62.5 s ± 18.5 s [mean ± standard deviation]; CE vs. TM; p = 0.20). An observed moderate level of evidence that root-mean-square model error was higher for the CE than for the TM (2.5 bpm ± 0.5 bpm vs. 2.2 bpm ± 0.5 bpm, p = 0.059) may reflect a decrease in heart rate variability with increasing HR intensity because, in order to achieve similar levels of perceived intensity, mean heart rate for the CE was approximately 25 bpm lower than for the TM. Conclusion and significance: These results have important implications for model-based design of automatic HR controllers, because, in principle, the same dynamic controller, merely scaled according to the differing steady-state gains, should be able to be applied to the CE and TM exercise modalities.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


School of Engineering and Computer Science > Institut für Rehabilitation und Leistungstechnologie IRPT
School of Engineering and Computer Science
BFH Centres and strategic thematic fields > BFH centre for Health technologies
School of Engineering and Computer Science > Institute for Human Centered Engineering (HUCE) > Digital Health Lab


Hunt, Kenneth James;
Grunder, Reto and
Zahnd, Andreas


Q Science > QP Physiology
T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)




Public Library of Science (PLoS)




Kenneth James Hunt

Date Deposited:

25 Sep 2019 10:20

Last Modified:

03 Nov 2023 09:53

Publisher DOI:





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