Reliability of the active knee joint position sense test and influence of limb dominance and sex

Busch, Aglaja; Bangerter, Christian; Mayer, Frank; Baur, Heiner (2023). Reliability of the active knee joint position sense test and influence of limb dominance and sex Scientific Reports, 13(1) Springer 10.1038/s41598-022-26932-2

s41598-022-26932-2.pdf - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons: Attribution (CC-BY).

Download (1MB) | Preview

The output of a sensorimotor performance can be measured with the joint position sense (JPS) test. However, investigations of leg dominance, sex and quality measures on this test are limited. Therefore, these potential influencing factors as well as reliability and consistency measures were evaluated for angular reproduction performance and neuromuscular activity during the active knee JPS test in healthy participants. Twenty healthy participants (10 males; 10 females; age 29 ± 8 years; height 165 ± 39 cm; body mass 69 ± 13 kg) performed a seated knee JPS test with a target angle of 50°. Measurements were conducted in two sessions separated by two weeks and consisted of two blocks of continuous angular reproduction (three minutes each block). The difference between reproduced and target angle was identified as angular error measured by an electrogoniometer. During reproduction, the neuromuscular activity of the quadriceps muscle was assessed by surface electromyography. Neuromuscular activity was normalized to submaximal voluntary contraction (subMVC) and displayed per muscle and movement phase. Differences between leg dominance and sex were calculated using Friedman-test (α = 0.05). Reliability measures including intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), Bland–Altman analysis (bias ± limits of agreement (LoA)) and minimal detectable change (MDC) were analysed. No significant differences between leg dominance and sex were found in angular error and neuromuscular activity. Angular error demonstrated inter-session ICC scores of 0.424 with a bias of 2.4° (± 2.4° LoA) as well as MDC of 6.8° and moderate intra-session ICC (0.723) with a bias of 1.4° (± 1.65° LoA) as well as MDC of 4.7°. Neuromuscular activity for all muscles and movement phases illustrated inter-session ICC ranging from 0.432 to 0.809 with biases between − 2.5 and 13.6% subMVC and MDC from 13.4 to 63.9% subMVC. Intra-session ICC ranged from 0.705 to 0.987 with biases of − 7.7 to 2.4% subMVC and MDC of 2.7 to 46.5% subMVC. Leg dominance and sex seem not to influence angular reproduction performance and neuromuscular activity. Poor to excellent relative reliability paired with an acceptable consistency confirm findings of previous studies. Comparisons to pathological populations should be conducted with caution.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


School of Health Professions
School of Health Professions > Physiotherapy
School of Health Professions > Physiotherapy > Neuromuscular Control


Busch, Aglaja0000-0001-6025-3710;
Bangerter, Christian;
Mayer, Frank and
Baur, Heiner0000-0002-4780-225X


Q Science > QP Physiology








Aglaja Busch

Date Deposited:

18 Jan 2023 11:54

Last Modified:

22 Jan 2023 01:36

Publisher DOI:





Actions (login required)

View Item View Item
Provide Feedback