Modulation Scheme Analysis for Low-Power Leadless Pacemaker Synchronization Based on Conductive Intracardiac Communication

Ryser, Adrian; Schmid, Tobias; Bereuter, Lukas; Burger, Jurgen; Reichlin, Tobias; Niederhauser, Thomas; Haeberlin, Andreas (2022). Modulation Scheme Analysis for Low-Power Leadless Pacemaker Synchronization Based on Conductive Intracardiac Communication IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems, 16(3), pp. 419-429. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 10.1109/TBCAS.2022.3178444

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Conductive intracardiac communication (CIC) has been demonstrated as a promising concept for the synchronization of multi-chamber leadless cardiac pacemakers (LLPMs). To meet the 2–5 μ W power budget of a LLPM, highly specialized CIC-transceivers, which make optimal use of the cardiac communication channel, need to be developed. However, a detailed investigation of the optimal communication parameters for CIC-based LLPM synchronization is missing so far. This work analyzes the intracardiac communication performance of two low-power modulation techniques, namely On-Off-Keying (OOK) and Manchester-encoded baseband transmission (BB-MAN), as a function of the transmitted bit-energy. The bit error rate (BER) of a prototype dual-chamber LLPM was determined both in simulation and in-vitro experiments on porcine hearts. A BER of 1e − 4 was achieved with a median bit-energy in the range of 3-16 pJ (interquartile range: 4-15 pJ) for data rates from 75-500 kbps and a receiver input noise density of 7 nV/ √Hz . Both modulation schemes showed comparable performance, with BB-MAN having a slight bit-energy advantage (1-2 dB at 150-500 kbps) under equalized transceiver characteristics. This study demonstrates that reliable CIC-based LLPM synchronization is feasible at transmitted power levels < 10 nW under realistic channel conditions and receiver noise performance. Therefore, modulation techniques such, as BB-MAN or OOK, are preferable over recently proposed alternatives, such as pulse position modulation or conductive impulse signaling, since they can be realized with fewer hardware resources and smaller bandwidth requirements. Ultimately, a baseband communication approach might be favored over OOK, due to the more efficient cardiac signal transmission and reduced transceiver complexity.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)

Division/Institute:

School of Engineering and Computer Science > Institute for Human Centered Engineering (HUCE)
School of Engineering and Computer Science > Institute for Human Centered Engineering (HUCE) > HUCE / Laboratory for Microelectronics and Medical Devices
School of Engineering and Computer Science
BFH Centres > BFH centre for Health technologies

Name:

Ryser, Adrian;
Schmid, Tobias;
Bereuter, Lukas;
Burger, Jurgen;
Reichlin, Tobias;
Niederhauser, Thomas0000-0003-2633-0844 and
Haeberlin, Andreas

Subjects:

T Technology > TK Electrical engineering. Electronics Nuclear engineering

ISSN:

1932-4545

Publisher:

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

Language:

English

Submitter:

Thomas Niederhauser

Date Deposited:

07 Sep 2022 09:49

Last Modified:

07 Sep 2022 09:49

Publisher DOI:

10.1109/TBCAS.2022.3178444

ARBOR DOI:

10.24451/arbor.17634

URI:

https://arbor.bfh.ch/id/eprint/17634

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