The Stoop-Squat-Index: a simple but powerful measure for quantifying whole-body lifting behavior

Schmid, Stefan (2022). The Stoop-Squat-Index: a simple but powerful measure for quantifying whole-body lifting behavior Archives of Physiotherapy, 12(8), pp. 1-6. BioMed Central 10.1186/s40945-022-00135-4

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Background: Most of the studies evaluating lifting behavior only focus on very localized parameters such as lumbar spine flexion, while evaluations of whole-body strategies are largely lacking. To enable relatively simple evaluations of whole-body strategies, this study aimed at developing a novel index for quantifying the stoop-squat behavior, and to establish normative values of the index for healthy pain-free adults. Methods: A novel index, the Stoop-Squat-Index, was developed, which describes the proportion between trunk forward lean and lower extremity joint flexion, with possible values ranging from 0 (full squat lifting) to 100 (full stoop lifting). To enable the interpretation of the index in a real-life setting, normative values for lifting a moderately-weighted object (15-kg-box) with a full squat and a full stoop technique were established using motion capture data from 30 healthy pain-free individuals that underwent motion analysis of squat and stoop lifting in the context of a previously conducted study. Results: The results showed mean index values of lower than 30 and higher than 90 for the most relevant phases of the squat and stoop movements, respectively, with mean index values differing significantly from each other for the full duration of the lifting phases. Conclusions: The main advantages of the index are that it is simple to calculate and can not only be derived from motion capture data but also from conventional video recordings, which enables large-scale in-field measurements with relatively low expenditure. When used in combination with lumbar spine flexion measurements, the index can contribute important information, which is necessary for comprehensively evaluating whole-body lifting strategies and to shed more light on the debate over the connection between lifting posture and back complaints.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


School of Health Professions
School of Health Professions > Physiotherapy
School of Health Professions > Physiotherapy > Spinal Movement Biomechanics


Schmid, Stefan0000-0001-5138-9800


R Medicine > R Medicine (General)




BioMed Central




Stefan Schmid

Date Deposited:

23 May 2022 16:31

Last Modified:

23 May 2022 16:31

Publisher DOI:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

Lifting strategy, Lifting technique, Object lifting, Kinematics




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