Models of Ethics Deliberation and Consultation

Milliken, Aimee; Monteverde, Settimio; Grace, Pamela (2022). Models of Ethics Deliberation and Consultation In: Grace, Pamela; Milliken, Aimee (eds.) Clinical Ethics Handbook for Nurses. The International Library of Bioethics: Vol. 93 (pp. 85-114). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands 10.1007/978-94-024-2155-2_5

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In this chapter, we describe the origins of institutional healthcare ethics consultation services and the development of healthcare ethics committees in the US, Switzerland and elsewhere. We discuss some of the landmark situations, cases and macro-political and social frameworks that have contributed to their genesis. Next, we describe common models of ethical decision-making. While this list is not meant to be exhaustive, it covers approaches to ethical decision-making that are commonly used in clinical ethics, and which also can be found in the nursing ethics literature. We examine the roles that healthcare ethics committees fill in some hospitals in the US, including collaborative and consultative functions for clinical ethics issues and organizational ethics questions. We all note that in other countries ethics deliberations are not necessarily carried out only this way, for example in Switzerland. Also noted is the role that nurses with advanced education and ethical expertise can play in supporting and empowering point of care nurses and other clinicians to address moral distress as discussed in other chapters. Finally, we describe preventive ethics, and the critical role of nurses in the early recognition of emerging problems and calling attention to them before they escalate to intractable conflict.

Item Type:

Book Section (Book Chapter)


School of Health Professions
School of Health Professions > Nursing
School of Health Professions > G Teaching


Milliken, Aimee;
Monteverde, Settimio0000-0002-7041-2663;
Grace, Pamela;
Grace, Pamela and
Milliken, Aimee


B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BJ Ethics
R Medicine > RT Nursing






The International Library of Bioethics


Springer Netherlands




Settimio Monteverde

Date Deposited:

16 May 2022 10:35

Last Modified:

16 May 2022 10:35

Publisher DOI:



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