A Cognitive Perspective on Consumers’ Resistances to Smart Products

Raff, Stefan; Wentzel, Daniel (2018). A Cognitive Perspective on Consumers’ Resistances to Smart Products In: Smart Working, Living and Organising. IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology: Vol. 533 (pp. 30-44). Cham: Springer International Publishing 10.1007/978-3-030-04315-5_3

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Despite their increasing relevance, research falls short to reveal the key factors hindering the adoption of smart technologies. Therefore, the aim of this exploratory study was to elicit consumers’ cognitive representations, i.e. mental models of different smart product concepts based on similarity and dissimilarity judgments, and to label the key dimensions based on which consumers mentally categorize them. This was expected to shed light on drivers of adoption resistance in order to help practitioners in product design and promotion. An innovative mix of two research methods was applied, namely quantitative-descriptive projective mapping and free associations. We found that consumers mentally balance released smart product concepts along with a rationally laden ‘useful-useless’ dimension and unreleased concepts along with an emotionally laden ‘intrusive-useful’ dimension. Additionally, this research showcases (1) method diversity in the field of IS and (2) how non-IS scholars who apply new approaches to an IS phenomenon contribute with new perspectives and thus enrich the field as a whole. This is work in progress and part of an overarching mixed-method agenda. The exploratory findings will be used to carve out further research directions for this growing field (e.g. the development of a construct measuring consumers’ perceived intrusion of smart products).

Item Type:

Book Section (Book Chapter)


Business School


Raff, Stefan0000-0002-3045-4746 and
Wentzel, Daniel




IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology


Springer International Publishing




Stefan Raff

Date Deposited:

16 Mar 2022 09:27

Last Modified:

16 Mar 2022 09:27

Publisher DOI:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

Smart product Internet of Things ICT Innovation resistance Adoption barrier Mental model Mixed-method research



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